Their number and extent of power shall be established by the legislative body. II, part III.  With sweeping plans for democratization and wealth redistribution, the new document promised a significant departure from the relatively moderate goals of the Revolution in previous years. 19. Walter, G. (1961) Le vaincu du neuf Thermidor, p. 51-52. 3. The legislative body is one, indivisible and continual. By the particular name of decrees are understood those enactments of the legislative body, which concern: 56. After being drafted and approved by the Legislative Body, the law would be considered a "proposed law" and voted on by all of the communes of France. 75. 2. It serves as a place of refuge for all who, on account of liberty, are banished from their native country. The proceedings are in public. It suffers no interference of other nations with its own. The general military force against foreign enemies is under the command of the executive council. (2) The French government was forced to increase taxes. 116. On 19 April Robespierre opposed article 7. They shall conciliate and hold court without fees. The Changing Profile of the Natural Law. Constitution of 1795 (Year III), French constitution established during the Thermidorian Reaction in the French Revolution.Known as the Constitution of Year III in the French republican calendar, it was prepared by the Thermidorian Convention.It was more conservative than the abortive democratic Constitution of 1793. 122. 81. Ans. 90. The right of exercising the rights of citizen is lost: 6. 1963. 108. The Constitution of Year III was drafted by the Thermidorian-ruled National Convention during the spring and summer of 1795. The Constitution made explicit that representation would only be determined by population, not by groups (as in the Estates-General, in which each Estate had its separate representation). With sweeping plans for democratization The French Republic is one and indivisible. On 2 June 1793 after an insurrection and the fall of the Girondins the National Convention chose Louis Saint-Just and several other deputies to serve on a committee that would draft a new governmental system for the recently established Republic. The executive council is responsible for the non-execution of the laws and decrees, and the abuses, of which it does not give notice. The national treasury is the central point of the revenues and expenses of the republic. Those persons appointed to revise the accounts are under the supervision of commissioners, who are elected by the legislative body, not out of their own number; and they are responsible for the frauds and mistakes of accounts, of which they do not give notice. On 15–17 April the Convention discussed the Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1793, a French political document that preceded that country's first republican constitution. Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1793, insurrection and the fall of the Girondins, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of 1793, Revolutionary Ideas: An Intellectual History of the French Revolution ... by Jonathan Israel, Chapter XIII, Preface to Constitution of 1793 with a declaration of the rights of man and citizen including right to rebellion, 1793: French Republic Constitution of 1793 - Online Library of Liberty, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, List of people associated with the French Revolution, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=French_Constitution_of_1793&oldid=971632560, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Alpaugh, Micah. It also established the conduct of the Civil Justice System, mandating that arbitrators be elected and that citizens could select arbitrators for their case, and of the Criminal Justice System, mandating trial by jury and representation for the accused. It proceeds thereto, whatever the number of citizens [present] may be, who have a right to vote. Finally, it guaranteed the right to equality, liberty, security, property, the public debt, free exercise of religion, general instruction, public assistance, the absolute liberty of the press, the right of petition, the right to hold popular assemblies, and the "enjoyment of all the rights of man". Constitution of 1793 (June) Republican constitution that was never implemented; sections lifted exactly from Robespierre's Declaration of Rights and does not include a king; allows freedom of religion and recognizes abominations of slavery; contradicts itself (i.e. They are organized, after a president, secretaries and collectors of votes have been appointed. Palmer (1973) The Twelve who ruled, p. 37. It was finally adopted in August 1795 and endorsed by a plebiscite three weeks later. constituteproject.org PDF generated: 18 Feb 2021, 10:18 France 1958 (rev. The accused shall have advocates, either chosen by themselves, or appointed officially. Walter, G. (1961) Le vaincu du neuf Thermidor, p. 44-48. 26. The executive council chooses, but not from its midst, the foreign agents of the republic. A primary meeting can in no case prescribe more than one manner of voting. 37. 117. 86. These agents are supervised by officers of account, whom the legislative body shall elect, but who cannot be taken from their own body: they are responsible for abuses of which they do not give legal notice to the courts. It is obliged, if possible, to inform the judicial authorities regarding them. 1. The civil and penal code is the same for the whole republic. It decides on the violation of matters of form, and on transgressions expressed by law. until the peace." The constitution guarantees to all Frenchmen equality, liberty, security, property, the public debt, free exercise of religion, general instruction, public assistance, absolute liberty of the press, the right of petition, the right to hold popular assemblies, and the enjoyment of all the rights of man. It has the right of censorship on the conduct of the members in its midst. It appoints, but not out of its midst, the highest agents of the general administration of the republic. The revolutionaries of 1848 were inspired by this constitution, and after 1870 it passed into the ideology of the Third Republic as well. The legislative body shall call it into its midst, in whole or in part, when it is thought necessary. Because of the emergency, however, the Convention placed the new constitution on the shelf in October and declared that “the provisional government of France is revolutionary … Kennedy, M. L. "The Jacobin Clubs in the French Revolution: 1793-1795," p.53. For every 40,000 individuals, one deputy is chosen. The French Constitution is representative; the representatives are the legislative body and the King. 61. They shall assign the reasons of their decisions. The French Constitution of 1793 was approved by a referendum in the summer of 1793. The Constitution of 1793 (French: Acte constitutionnel du 24 juin 1793), also known as the Constitution of the Year I or the Montagnard Constitution, was the second constitution ratified for use during the French Revolution under the First Republic. "The Right of Resistance to Oppression: Protest and Authority in the French Revolutionary World,", This page was last edited on 7 August 2020, at 09:37. The executive council shall have its seat near the legislative body. Liberty Fund, Inc. All rights reserved. II, part III. 12. Article 1st. No citizen is excluded from the honorable obligation to contribute towards the public expenses. 84. 29. The document represents a fundamental and historic shift in political priorities, one which contributed much to later democratic institutions and developments. The French Republic honors loyalty, courage, old age, filial devotion, and misfortune. The state of facts and the intention are passed upon by a jury.  The ensuing Reign of Terror culminated in the disgrace and execution of Robespierre and Saint-Just in 1794. 4. The collectors of votes note down the votes of those citizens who cannot write, and yet prefer to vote secretly. 89, the method of amendment of the French Constitution has been laid down. The primary assemblies are formed of the citizens who have resided six months in a canton.  A complete constitutional document was submitted to the convention on 10 June 1793. 51. The legislative power is delegated to a National Assembly, composed of temporary representatives freely elected by the people, to be exercised by it, with the sanction of the King, in the manner hereinafter determined. 72. 78. the general administration of revenues and of the ordinary expenditures of the republic; the inscription, alloy, stamp and names of coins; declaration of war; every new general division of the French territory; public instruction; public demonstrations of honor to the memory of great men. 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