Along the stretch of the Nile north of Khartoum, which is sometimes called the United Nile, two parts can be distinguished. The Ancient Egyptians cultivated and traded wheat, flax, papyrus and other crops around the Nile. [16], In Nobiin the river is called Áman Dawū, meaning "the great water".[5]. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Ancient Egypt Nile River What did the ancient Egyptians use to get across the Nile River? The following bridges cross the Blue Nile and connect Khartoum to Khartoum North: The following bridges cross the White Nile and connect Khartoum to Omdurman: the following bridges cross from Omdurman: to Khartoum North: The following bridges cross to Tuti from Khartoum states three cities, Murchison Falls in Uganda, between Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga. As a result of this, the Blue Nile was known as far as its exit from the Ethiopian foothills and the White Nile as far as the mouth of the Sobat River. With such an extended length, the Nile River is speculated for being the longest river on this planet. The Tabula Rogeriana depicted the source as three lakes in 1154. The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself. p(h).iar-o "the.canal-great"), and comes from the same ancient name. Below Renk the White Nile enters Sudan, it flows north to Khartoum and meets the Blue Nile. Europeans began to learn about the origins of the Nile in the fourteenth century when the Pope sent monks as emissaries to Mongolia who passed India, the Middle East and Africa, and described being told of the source of the Nile in Abyssinia (Ethiopia)[62][63] Later in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, travelers to Ethiopia visited Lake Tana and the source of the Blue Nile in the mountains south of the lake. The Atbara flows only while there is rain in Ethiopia and dries very rapidly. [36] During the dry season (January to June) the White Nile contributes between 70 percent and 90 percent of the total discharge from the Nile. The White Nile starts in equatorial East Africa, and the Blue Nile begins in Ethiopia. Thus, all tombs were west of the Nile, because the Egyptians believed that in order to enter the afterlife, they had to be buried on the side that symbolized death. [52][53] This created a very long and deep canyon which was filled with sediment after the Mediterranean was recreated. "Τηθὺς δ᾽ Ὠκεανῷ Ποταμοὺς τέκε δινήεντας, Robert J. Stern, Mohamed Gamal Abdelsalam: The Origin of the Great Bend of the Nile from SIR-C/X-SAR Imaginary. Median response time is 34 minutes and may be longer for new subjects. paper 12", "Late Pleistocene and Holocene environmental and climatic change from Lake Tana, source of the Blue Nile", "Did the Nile River flow to the Gulf of Sirt during the late Miocene? [69] Jerónimo Lobo describes the source of the Blue Nile, visiting shortly after Pedro Páez. The Nile River, considered the longest river in the world, is approximately 6,853 kilometers (4,258 miles) long, but its exact length is a matter of debate. Allan, for the Ministry of Hydro-power of the Republic of the Sudan, during 1955–1957[73][74][75] Morrice was their Hydrological Adviser, and Allan his predecessor. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The calculations were run on an IBM 650 computer. Most paddle steamers have been retired to shorefront service, but modern diesel tourist boats remain on the river. It is mentioned extensively in research and literature related to Egypt and the Egyptian empire. Better find a map of Africa and check it out for yourself. Many cruise ships ply the route between Luxor and Aswan, stopping at Edfu and Kom Ombo along the way. The annual sediment transport by the Nile in Egypt has been quantified.[39]. How long is the Nile River? These animals were killed for meat, and were domesticated and used for ploughing—or in the camels' case, carriage. On 29 January 2005 Canadian Les Jickling and New Zealander Mark Tanner completed the first human powered transit of Ethiopia's Blue Nile. https://www.britannica.com/place/Nile-River, Nile River - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Nile River - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The Nile River is actually 6695 kilometers(4184 miles) long. The Amazon River might be considered as the second largest river on earth, although it has been difficult to … The river's flow is disturbed at several points by the Cataracts of the Nile, which are sections of faster-flowing water with many small islands, shallow water, and rocks, which form an obstacle to navigation by boats. This rift is possibly still active, with reported tectonic activity in its northern and southern boundaries. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Akhet, which means inundation, was the time of the year when the Nile flooded, leaving several layers of fertile soil behind, aiding in agricultural growth. Just south of the town it has the confluence with the Achwa River. The Blue Nile flows about 1,400 kilometres to Khartoum, where the Blue Nile and White Nile join to form the Nile. The Bahr al Ghazal, itself 716 kilometers (445 mi) long, joins the Bahr al Jabal at a small lagoon called Lake No, after which the Nile becomes known as the Bahr al Abyad, or the White Nile, from the whitish clay suspended in its waters. Although it is generally associated with Egypt, only 22% of the Nile’s course runs through Egypt. The Blue Nile, however, is the source of most of the water, containing 80% of the water and silt. The Nile River empties into the Mediterranean Sea in northern Egypt. The basin is bordered on the north by the Mediterranean; on the east by the Red Sea Hills and the Ethiopian Plateau; on the south by the East African Highlands, which include Lake Victoria, a Nile source; and on the west by the less well-defined watershed between the Nile, Chad, and Congo basins, extending northwest to include the Marrah Mountains of Sudan, the Al-Jilf al-Kabīr Plateau of Egypt, and the Libyan Desert (part of the Sahara). It is thought that approximately 30 million years ago the early Nile, then a much shorter stream, had its sources at about 18° to 20° N latitude. The White Nile, which is the longer of the two, begins at Lake Victoria in Tanzania and flows north until it reaches Khartoum, Sudan, where it converges with the Blue Nile. The longest river in Africa, it has historically been considered the longest river in the world,[6][7] though this has been contested by research suggesting that the Amazon River is slightly longer. The Nile River has had five stages in its evolution, with the first being the Eonile that formed approximately 5 million years ago, coinciding with the drying up of the Mediterranean Sea during the Miocene period. The Nile River in Egypt is said to be 4,132 miles (6,650 km) in length.... Read more Modern exploration of the Nile basin began with the conquest of the northern and central Sudan by the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt, Muḥammad Ali, and his sons from 1821 onward. With a total length of about 6,650 km (4,130 mi)[n 1] between the region of Lake Victoria and the Mediterranean Sea, the Nile is the longest river on Earth. The name Nile is derived from the Greek Neilos (Latin: Nilus), which probably originated from the Semitic root naḥal, meaning a valley or a river valley and hence, by an extension of the meaning, a river. In the Odyssey, the epic poem written by the Greek poet Homer (7th century bce), Aigyptos is the name of the Nile (masculine) as well as the country of Egypt (feminine) through which it flows. The Nile supports much of the population living along its banks, enabling Egyptians to live in otherwise inhospitable regions of the Sahara. Abridged illustrated edition, as The Story of the White Nile (Harper & Row, 1967), Moorehead, Alan, "The Blue Nile" (Hamish Hamilton, 1962; revised and illustrated edition, 1972). An overview is given by: Carles Múrcia (2006). The Egyptian Nile connected to the Sudanese Nile, which captures the Ethiopian and Equatorial headwaters during the current stages of tectonic activity in the Eastern, Central and Sudanese Rift Systems. Irrigation, navigation and other needs were considered. The Nile was much longer at that time, with its furthest headwaters in northern Zambia. Wheat was a crucial crop in the famine-plagued Middle East. At Khartoum the river is joined by the Blue Nile. In Biblical Hebrew: .mw-parser-output .script-hebrew,.mw-parser-output .script-Hebr{font-family:"SBL Hebrew","SBL BibLit","Frank Ruehl CLM","Taamey Frank CLM","Ezra SIL","Ezra SIL SR","Keter Aram Tsova","Taamey Ashkenaz","Taamey David CLM","Keter YG","Shofar","David CLM","Hadasim CLM","Simple CLM","Nachlieli",Cardo,Alef,"Noto Serif Hebrew","Noto Sans Hebrew","David Libre",David,"Times New Roman",Gisha,Arial,FreeSerif,FreeSans}הַיְאוֹר‎, Ha-Ye'or or הַשִׁיחוֹר‎, Ha-Shiḥor. During the dry season the natural discharge of the Blue Nile can be as low as 113 m3/s (4,000 cu ft/s), although upstream dams regulate the flow of the river. Satellite imagery was used to identify dry watercourses in the desert to the west of the Nile. The Nile was also a convenient and efficient means of transportation for people and goods. Recommendations were made to the Sudanese authorities. They recount that they paddled through two war zones, regions notorious for bandits, and were arrested at gunpoint.[83]. The Sobat River, which joins the Nile a short distance below Lake No, drains about half as much land, 225,000 km2 (86,900 sq mi), but contributes 412 cubic meters per second (14,500 cu ft/s) annually to the Nile. Both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift. Because the river overflowed its banks annually and deposited new layers of silt, the surrounding land was very fertile. The following is an annotated bibliography of key written documents for the Western exploration of the Nile. It flows north for some 130 kilometers (81 mi), to Lake Kyoga. In ancient times, the waters of the Nile rose and flooded the surrounding plains. 200. "Nile" . There is some debate over this title, though – some scientists argue that the Amazon river in South America is longer. Their 9-month journey is described in the book Kayaks down the Nile. Major river in Africa and the longest river in the world, Role in the founding of Egyptian civilization, Crossings from Khartoum to the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile is the area's natural navigation channel, giving access to Khartoum and Sudan by steamer. Steam navigation remained integral to the two countries as late as 1962. The Nile River is approximately 4,100 miles long and was historically thought to be the longest river in the world. The Nile Delta is approximately 100 miles (161 km) long from north to south, and it spreads out along ab… Roughly 4,258 miles long What is the longest river in the world? The Amazon River runs a very close second, although it has been difficult to determine which is actually longer. The Nile runs for 4,258 miles throughout Africa. It can change significantly during periods of flood. It flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Uganda and South Sudan. Improvements in air, rail, and highway facilities beginning in the 20th century, however, greatly reduced dependency on the waterway. The River Nile. The Nile River basin, which covers about one-tenth of the area of the continent, served as the stage for the evolution and decay of advanced civilizations in the ancient world. Their approximately 5,230-kilometre (3,250 mi) journey took 114 days, from 25 December 2003 to 28 April 2004. The countries within its drainage basin are: Ethiopia, Sudan The Nile is also featured in a number of Egyptian myths. The English name Nile and the Arabic names en-Nîl and an-Nîl both derive from the Latin Nilus and the Ancient Greek Νεῖλος. The other stages of its evolution are the Paleonile, Protonile, Prenile and Neonile. Drought has proven to be a major cause of fatality in the Nile river basin. The Nile Basin Initiative promotes a peaceful cooperation among those states. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan, and nearly all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient Egypt are found along river banks. Updates? The ancients mistakenly believed that the Niger River represented the upper reaches of the White Nile. The Sudd swamps which form the central part of the basin may still be subsiding. Despite the development of many reservoirs, drought during the 1980s led to widespread starvation in Ethiopia and Sudan, but Egypt was nourished by water impounded in Lake Nasser. A tune, Hymn to the Nile, was created and sung by the ancient Egyptian peoples about the flooding of the Nile River and all of the miracles it brought to Ancient Egyptian civilization.[59]. This fluctuation is due to the substantial variation in the flow of the Sobat, which has a minimum flow of about 99 m3/s (3,500 cu ft/s) in March and a peak flow of over 680 m3/s (24,000 cu ft/s) in October. About how long was the Nile River? *Response times vary by subject and question complexity. The Blue Nile River is 994 miles (1,600 km) long. Water buffalo were introduced from Asia and the Assyrians introduced camels in the 7th century BC. The Blue Nile begins near Lake Tana in Ethiopia. Its basin includes parts of Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Uganda, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Sudan, and the cultivated part of Egypt. The Nile river flows into South Sudan just south of Nimule, where it is known as the Bahr al Jabal ("Mountain River"[34]). 3. In Egyptian Arabic, the Nile is called en-Nīl while in Standard Arabic it is called an-Nīl. There is plenty of debate surrounding this, however, for many believe the Amazon River in South America might be longer. In harsh and arid seasons and droughts the Blue Nile dries out completely.[45]. about 4,000 miles (6,437 km) 200. With such a long length, the Nile River is speculated to be the longest river in the world. There was a problem. Salama suggested that during the Paleogene and Neogene Periods (66 million to 2.588 million years ago) a series of separate closed continental basins each occupied one of the major parts of the Sudanese Rift System: Mellut rift, White Nile rift, Blue Nile rift, Atbara rift and Sag El Naam rift. Morrice and W.N. 19 (11th ed.). The dispute between Egypt and Ethiopia over the $4.5 billion Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam has become a national preoccupation in both countries, stoking patriotism, deep-seated fears and even murmurs of war. [12], The Nile has two major tributaries – the White Nile and the Blue Nile. Without a better understanding about the availability of the future water resources of the Nile, it is possible that conflicts could arise between these countries relying on the Nile for their water supply, economic and social developments. answered 6 years ago. Burton, recovering from illness and resting further south on the shores of Lake Tanganyika, was outraged that Speke claimed to have proved his discovery to be the true source of the Nile when Burton regarded this as still unsettled. According to a report by the Strategic Foresight Group around 170 million people have been affected by droughts in the last century with half a million lives lost. The flow rate of the Bahr al Jabal at Mongalla, South Sudan is almost constant throughout the year and averages 1,048 m3/s (37,000 cu ft/s). The White Nile is longer and rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa, with the most distant source still undetermined but located in either Rwanda or Burundi. Hapi was the god of the annual floods, and both he and the pharaoh were thought to control the flooding. Nile cities include Khartoum, Aswan, Luxor (Thebes), and the Giza – Cairo conurbation. Europeans had been resident in Ethiopia since the late fifteenth century, and one of them may have visited the headwaters even earlier without leaving a written trace. As the Nile was such an important factor in Egyptian life, the ancient calendar was even based on the three cycles of the Nile. Páez's account of the source of the Nile[65] is a long and vivid account of Ethiopia. Over 600 models were run. From here it soon meets with the Sobat River at Malakal. While most Egyptians still live in the Nile valley, the 1970 completion of the Aswan High Dam ended the summer floods and their renewal of the fertile soil, fundamentally changing farming practices. The source of the Nile is sometimes considered to be Lake Victoria, but the lake itself has feeder rivers of considerable size. An anabranch river, the Bahr el Zeraf, flows out of the Nile's Bahr al Jabal section and rejoins the White Nile. wet period. 1. [22], Another possible etymology derives it from a Semitic Nahal, meaning "river". [46] When in flood the Sobat carries a large amount of sediment, adding greatly to the White Nile's color.[47]. During the wet season the peak flow of the Blue Nile often exceeds 5,663 m3/s (200,000 cu ft/s) in late August (a difference of a factor of 50). In: Science, New Series, Vol. It's only recent that the first known navigation team successfully followed the river from beginning to i… This part of the river is a regular tourist route, with cruise ships and traditional wooden sailing boats known as feluccas. The Nile River is 6,650 kilometers long. The Nile at Dendera, as seen from the SPOT satellite. It is approximately 8 km (5 miles) wide. The Nile (iteru in Ancient Egyptian) has been the lifeline of civilization in Egypt since the Stone Age, with most of the population and all of the cities of Egypt resting along those parts of the Nile valley lying north of Aswan. This is known to be the longest river in the world, and it is also a north−flowing river, which makes it a bit different from all of the other rivers that you can find in the world. A New Dam Threatens That", "Egypt and Thirsty Neighbors Are at Odds Over Nile", ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim, Current Ummah of Islam (Ummah of Muhammad), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nile&oldid=1002580538, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2021, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles containing Sanskrit-language text, Instances of Lang-sa using second unnamed parameter, Articles containing Egyptian Arabic-language text, Articles containing Amharic-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2011, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2011, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Believing he had found the source of the Nile on seeing this "vast expanse of open water" for the first time, Speke named the lake after the then Queen of the United Kingdom. The Siege of Khartoum was broken with purpose-built sternwheelers shipped from England and steamed up the river to retake the city. [60] Peret was the growing season, and Shemu, the last season, was the harvest season when there were no rains.[60]. The Eonile transported clastic sediments to the Mediterranean; several natural gas fields have been discovered within these sediments. The river is a major transport source particularly true during the flooding where travel by road is not available in many places along the river. The Mellut Rift Basin is nearly 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) deep at its central part. Delta . These seasons, each consisting of four months of thirty days each, were called Akhet, Peret, and Shemu. The first part, which stretches from Khartoum to Lake Nasser, is about 830 miles in length; there the river flows through a desert region where rainfall is negligible, although some irrigation takes place along its banks. [26] Compared to other major rivers, though, the Nile carries little water (5% of the Congo's river, for example). It has a length of about 4,132 miles (6,650 kilometres) and drains an area estimated at 1,293,000 square miles (3,349,000 square kilometres). The Nile River is a famous river that is located in Northeastern Africa. The drainage basin of the Nile covers 3,254,555 square kilometers (1,256,591 sq mi), about 10% of the area of Africa. [11] In particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt and Sudan. In Coptic, the word ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ, pronounced piaro (Sahidic) or phiaro (Bohairic), means "the river" (lit. A very public quarrel ensued, which sparked a great deal of intense debate within the scientific community and interest by other explorers keen to either confirm or refute Speke's discovery. 300. [23] Or perhaps Old Libyan lilu meaning water (in modern Berber ilel ⵉⵍⴻⵍ means sea).[24]. Gish Abay is reportedly the place where the "holy water" of the first drops of the Blue Nile develop.[33]. In the north of Sudan the river enters Lake Nasser (known in Sudan as Lake Nubia), the larger part of which is in Egypt. [58] The connection of the different Niles occurred during cyclic wet periods. The Portuguese João Bermudes published the first description of the Tis Issat Falls in his 1565 memoirs, compared them to the Nile Falls alluded to in Cicero's De Republica. Sudan steamer traffic was a lifeline as few railways or roads were built in that country. 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