[7], During the reign of Muhammad Shah, the empire began to break up, and vast tracts of central India passed from Mughal to Maratha hands. The major downfall came with the revolt of 1857. The major Mughal emperors were: Babur (r. 1526-30) Humayun (r. 1530-56) Akbar (r. 1556-1605) Humāyūn on horseback, c. 17th century; in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb stand out as the most prominent Mughal kings. [14] The Hindu Marathas were expert horsemen who refused to engage in set-piece battles, but rather engaged in campaigns of guerrilla warfare, a war of raids, ambushes and attacks upon the Mughal supply lines. Meeting between Bābur and the sultan ʿAlī Mīrzā near Samarkand, illustration from the Bābūr-nāmeh (“The Book of... Humayun. Take a look at Table 1 once again. [9], Through warfare and diplomacy, Akbar was able to extend the empire in all directions, and controlled almost the entire Indian subcontinent north of the Godavari river. [7] He left his son an internally stable state, which was in the midst of its golden age, but before long signs of political weakness would emerge. Except this, these authors also collected a lot of information about other aspects of the sub-continent which helped the rulers to govern their domain. The result was a constant churning of wars and political intrigue as rivals sought to unseat each other and expand their territories. He had a bitter relationship with his father and tried to revolt against Akbar several times, but the father and son later reconciled. A major Mughal contribution to the Indian Subcontinent was their unique architecture. By the time of Babur’s death in 1530, he controlled all of northern India from the Indus to Bengal. From Kabul, which he had occupied in 1504, Babur turned his attention toward India, launching raids into the Punjab region beginning in 1519. Due to contractions between the British and Mughal, they supported the revolt of 1857. The Mughal Empire stretched across most of northern and central India, and what is now Pakistan, from 1526 to 1857, when the British exiled the last Mughal emperor.Together, the Muslim Mughal rulers and their predominantly Hindu subjects created a golden age in Indian history, full of art, scientific achievement, and stunning architecture. The Mughal nobility was recruited consciously by the Mughal rulers: (i)The Mughal nobility were the main pillars of Mughal state (ii)The Mughal nobility was chosen from different groups, both religiously and ethnically so as to ensure a balance of power between the various groups. Answer: It was the policy of the Mughal rulers to campaign constantly against rulers who were not ready to accept their authority. Coming to power in Delhi sometime around the year 1526, Babur … The sixth Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb also known by his regnal name Alamgir, ruled over the Indian subcontinent for over 49 years. Fifteen years later, Humayun took advantage of discord among Sher Shah’s successors to recapture Lahore, Delhi, and Agra. In 1568 he captured the fortress of Chitor (now Chittaurgarh), and his remaining Rajput opponents soon capitulated. In the year 1719 alone, four emperors successively ascended the throne". Babur spent much of his youth fixated on trying to capture and hold Samarkand, the former capital of the Timurid empire. Deposed by the British and was exiled to, This page was last edited on 19 January 2021, at 11:04. [7], Akbar's son, Jahangir, "was addicted to opium, neglected the affairs of the state, and came under the influence of rival court cliques. Administrative contribution: Several aspects of the Mughal administration were adopted not only by the Rajput and Maratha rulers but also by the British. The subahs were established by padshah (emperor) Akbar during his administrative reforms of 1572–1580; initially, they numbered 12, but his conquests expanded the number of subahs to 15 by the end of his reign. The geographical framework for the Mughal Empire was set, although it still lacked the administrative structures to be governed as a single state. Because of this close association, they were well versed with the trends of the Mughal court. Subahs were divided into Sarkars The Mughal reign started from 16th century and lasted till the 19th century. In the Mughal court, king was always the centre of all attractions during the daily routine and special activities. Mughal Relations with Other Rulers. [14] The Marathas were unable to take the Mughal fortresses via storm or formal siege as they lacked the artillery, but by constantly intercepting supply columns, they were able to starve Mughal fortresses into submission. A skilled military leader and administrator, Aurangzeb was a serious-minded ruler who avoided the decadence and substance-abuse issues that had plagued several of his predecessors. [7] The preoccupation with wars and military campaigns, however, did not allow the new emperor to consolidate the gains he had made in India. The Mughal emperors (or Moghul) built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian … Mughal culture sought reflection not only in their attire but also in the fine arts, lavish princely hobbies, and material luxuries. [citation needed] He established himself in Kabul and then pushed steadily southward into India from Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass. Here are the main facts on the six major Mughal emperors in Indian history. [7] The Indian historian Abraham Eraly wrote that foreigners were often impressed by the fabulous wealth of the Mughal court, but the glittering court hid darker realities, namely that about a quarter of the empire's gross national product was owned by 655 families while the bulk of India's 120 million people lived in appalling poverty. [14] A further problem for Aurangzeb was the army had always been based upon the land-owning aristocracy of northern India who provided the cavalry for the campaigns, and the empire had nothing equivalent to the Janissary corps of the Ottoman Empire. This approach, combined with Akbar’s tolerant attitudes toward non-Muslim peoples, ensured a high degree of harmony in the empire, in spite of the great diversity of its peoples and religions. [14] This system was not only expensive, but also made the army somewhat inflexible as the assumption was always the enemy would retreat into a fortress to be besieged or would engage in a set-piece decisive battle of annihilation on open ground. [7] Humayun's son, Akbar, succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped consolidate the Mughal Empire in India. The Mughals were a branch of the Timurid dynasty of Turco-Mongol origin from Central Asia. [6], The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a Timurid prince and ruler from Central Asia. Ruling over such a large territory of the Indian subcontinent with a variety of peoples and cultures was a very difficult task for any ruler to accomplish in the Middle Ages. With the support of the Islamic orthodoxy, however, a younger son of Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb, seized the throne. The character of Mughal kings had deteriorated over a period of time. [12] Akbar allowed freedom of religion at his court, and attempted to resolve socio-political and cultural differences in his empire by establishing a new religion, Din-i-Ilahi, with strong characteristics of a ruler cult. Task 3 The Mughal Empire Q.1 How Mughal Empire was established in India? During Aurangzeb's reign, the empire gained political strength once more, and it became the world's largest economy, over a quarter of the world GDP, but his establishment of Sharia caused huge controversies. Besides their wives, they also had a bitter relationship with his Jahangir! Arts was unprecedented, and his palace workshops produced some of the Mughal became many! This page was last edited on 19 January 2021, at 11:04 your inbox remaining Rajput soon! Several times, but the process gradually started upon Auragazeb death rapidly but... And encouraged cultural developments army in many expeditions and prosperous [ 6 ], the of! 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