On further addition, less toxicity metals like magnesium and its oxides represent to have high selectivity of PC through carbonylation of PG and CO without any further addition of solvents. In the Calvin cycle there is only one enzyme responsible for CO2 fixation: ribulose 1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, also known as Rubisco. Oxaloacetate is then converted to malate, that can be transported in to the bundle-sheath cells. Research using CO2 is explored in this chapter, and that using ILs is in Chapter 2, Biotransformation in Ionic Liquid. (xiii) Ribulose-5-phosphate is finally converted into ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate in the presence of phosphopentose kinase and ATP, thus completing the Calvin cycle. This pathway is present in a number of plants of desert environments, like cacti and succulents (Douce and Heldt, 2000; Wang et al., 2012; Nimir-Eltyb and Zhou, 2018). The Calvin cycle consists of: Carbon fixation - Carbon dioxide (CO 2) is reacted to produce glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P). ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128195390000105, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978044463743700007X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012801457800015X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444643018000056, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444595584000048, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128014578000069, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128029800000080, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128029800000183, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128190647000169, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444637437000019, Green organic synthesis by carbon oxide conversion, Anjani Mamidala, ... Srinath Suranani, in, Green Sustainable Process for Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Science, Enzymatic Kolbe–Schmitt Reaction for the Syntheses of Value-Added Compounds, Future Directions in Biocatalysis (Second Edition), Industrial Catalytic Processes for Fine and Specialty Chemicals, Microbial production of metabolites for food and processes, New and Future Developments in Microbial Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vitamin K represents an important cofactor, involved in the post-translational, Respirometric Balance and Carbon Fixation of Industrially Important Algae, Eduardo Bittencourt Sydney, ... Carlos Ricardo Soccol, in. Calvin cycle regulation in spinach chloroplasts. Then, reactions using lipase, alcohol dehydrogenase and carboxylase, and transgalactosidase, as well as processes such as cascade reactions, larger-scale synthesis using continuous flow reactions, and biphasic reactions, such as CO2/aqueous systems and CO2/ionic liquid systems, are introduced. Where in a plant cell is sugar metabolized? Enzymes are generally more stable in scCO2 than in water. These pathways work by ensuring that RUBISCO always encounters high concentrations CO2 avoiding inhibition due to binding to O2 (Nimir-Eltyb and Zhou, 2018). Figure 8.4. The Calvin cycle (C3-cycle) or PCR-cycle can be divided into three stages: (a) Car-boxylation, during which atmospheric CO2 combines with 5-C acceptor molecule ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate (RuBP) and converts it into 3-phosphoglyceric acid (3-PGA); (b) Reduction, which consumes ATP + NADPH (produced during primary photochemical reaction) and converts 3-PGA into 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde (3PGAld) or triose phosphate (TRI- OSE-P); and.